Pest Control Agents from Natural Products

Abstract Natural products have been used to control animal pests, plant diseases, and weeds since ancient times. Plants have been the most important sources of natural pesticides for centuries and preparations standardized for the active ingredient(s) by modern analytical methods became available in the last decades, making possible the manufacture of reliable products. More recently [...]


Recent developments in urea biosensors

Abstract This paper reviews recent developments in urea biosensors, as reported in the literature. The advantages and roles of various matrices, different strategies for biosensor construction, analytical performance and applications are discussed. The prospects of urea biosensors for medical applications are also discussed. Comments Detailed account of urea biosensors with interesting general observations on biosensor [...]


Synthetic biosensing systems

Abstract An essential feature of synthetic biology devices is the conversion of signals from the exterior of the cell into specific cellular events such as the synthesis of a fluorescent protein…In the future, completely artificial signaling pathways will give us the possibility to control cellular processes in a direct, precise and reliable way. At present, [...]


Surface acoustic wave biosensors: a review

Abstract This review presents an overview of 20 years of worldwide development in the field of biosensors based on special types of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that permit the highly sensitive detection of biorelevant molecules in liquid media…1987 saw the first approaches, which used either horizontally polarized shear waves (HPSW) in a delay line [...]


Direct optical sensors: principles and selected applications

Abstract In the field of bio and chemosensors a large number of detection principles has been published within the last decade. These detection principles are based either on the observation of fluorescence-labelled systems or on direct optical detection in the heterogeneous phase…Here, an overview of methods of microrefractometric and microreflectometric principles is given and benefits [...]


Array-based sensing with nanoparticles: ‘Chemical noses’ for sensing biomolecules and cell surfaces

Abstract Nanoparticle-based arrays have been used to distinguish a wide range of biomolecular targets through pattern recognition. In this report, we highlight new ‘chemical nose’ methodologies that use nanoparticle systems to provide high sensitivity sensing of biomolecular targets, including fluorescent polymer/gold nanoparticle complexes that can discriminate between different bioanalytes including proteins, bacteria, and mammalian cells [...]


Biomolecule imprinting: Developments in mimicking dynamic natural recognition systems

Abstract The principle of molecular imprinting has repeatedly been proven a successful and effective means of creating sites of specific recognition within polymers. After almost three decades of development, we finally have some evidence of large molecule imprinting…We describe here some of the new and innovative work that endeavours to take molecular imprinting away from [...]


Large scale biomimetic membrane arrays

Abstract To establish planar biomimetic membranes across large scale partition aperture arrays, we created a disposable single-use horizontal chamber design that supports combined optical–electrical measurements. Functional lipid bilayers could easily and efficiently be established across CO2 laser micro-structured 8×8 aperture partition arrays with average aperture diameters of 301±5 μm. We addressed the electro-physical properties of [...]


A living cell-based biosensor utilizing G-protein coupled receptors: Principles and detection methods

Abstract This study explores the feasibility of using a bullfrog fibroblast cell line (FT cells) expressing protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) as the basis for a living cell-based biosensor. We have fabricated gold microelectrode arrays on a silicon dioxide substrate that supports long term, robust growth of the cells at room temperature and under ambient atmospheric [...]


Trends in DNA biosensors

Abstract …Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biosensors (genosensors) have been exploited for their inherent physicochemical stability and suitability to discriminate different organism strains. The main principle of detection among genosensors relies on specific DNA hybridization, directly on the surface of a physical transducer. This review covers the main DNA immobilization techniques reported so far, new micro- and [...]