A polysaccharide bioprotonic field-effect transistor

Abstract In nature, electrical signalling occurs with ions and protons, rather than electrons. Artificial devices that can control and monitor ionic and protonic currents are thus an ideal means for interfacing with biological systems. Here we report the first demonstration of a biopolymer protonic field-effect transistor with proton-transparent PdHx contacts. In maleic-chitosan nanofibres, the flow [...]

Novel semiconductor materials for the development of chemical sensors and biosensors: A review

Abstract The aim of this manuscript is to provide a condensed overview of the contribution of certain relatively new semiconductor substrates…The silicon era is initially reviewed providing the background onto which the deployment of the new semiconductor materials for the development of bio-chem-FETs is based on. Subsequently emphasis is given to the selective interaction of [...]

Toxicity issues in the application of carbon nanotubes to biological systems

Abstract Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently emerged as a new option for possible use in methodologies of cancer treatment, bioengineering, and gene therapy. This review analyzes the potential, through possible toxicologic implications, of CNTs in nanomedicine. Generally, proven success in other fields may not translate to the use of CNTs in medicine for reasons including [...]

Electrochemical sensing based on carbon nanotubes

Abstract The singular chemical structure and the size of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) provide their extraordinary properties. Many researchers have used the electronic characteristics of CNTs to develop electrochemical analytical methods and sensing devices with improved characteristics. In this overview, we discuss the most significant innovations in electrochemical sensing based on CNTs, as reported in the [...]

Can we grow buildings? Concepts and requirements for automated nano- to meter-scale building

Abstract The construction industry will have to find new ways of building to accomplish radical reductions of pollution and waste. Nano and biotechnology along with information technology have the potential to constitute a new building paradigm. The paper describes the concept of nano- to meter-scale building, which is based on this potential. The concept is [...]

Humidity Sensors Mimicking Cuticle of Hercules Beetles

Abstract This paper reports a biomimetic humidity sensor inspired by the humidity-dependent color change observed in the cuticle of the Hercules beetle. A film-type humidity sensor with nanoporous structures based on 3D photonic crystals was designed and fabricated using the colloidal templating method and a surface treatment. The visible color of the fabricated humidity sensor [...]

Recent advances in wide bandgap semiconductor biological and gas sensors

Abstract There has been signi´Čücant recent interest in the use of surface-functionalized thin film and nanowire wide bandgap semiconductors, principally GaN, InN, ZnO and SiC, for sensing of gases, heavy metals, UV photons and biological molecules. For the detection of gases such as hydrogen, the semiconductors are typically coated with a catalyst metal such as [...]

Nano-Biosensor Development for Biomedical and Environmental Measurements

Abstract Nano biosensor development for biomedical and environmental measurements has been tried by research groups all over the world. Identifying and fabricating suitable nano-materials as enzyme immobilizing matrices to enhance characteristics of the sensor is the most important and difficult task of it. In this chapter we discuss about polypyrrole(PPy) nano-tube array grown on Alumina [...]