A brief history of measurement

Abstract The aim of this paper is to situate the subject of measurement and metrology in its historical and philosophical context. Everyone agrees that the numeration of objects and the quantification of the characteristics of some simple systems are very ancient practices encountered in any specific civilisation. Indeed the link between measurement and numeration comes [...]

T-Ray Sensing and Imaging

Abstract Terahertz-ray (T-ray) wavelengths are long enough to pass through dry, nonpolar objects opaque at visible wavelengths, but short enough to be manipulated by optical components to form an image. Sensing in this band potentially provides advantages in a number of areas of interest to security and defense such as screening of personnel for hidden [...]

Direct optical sensors: principles and selected applications

Abstract In the field of bio and chemosensors a large number of detection principles has been published within the last decade. These detection principles are based either on the observation of fluorescence-labelled systems or on direct optical detection in the heterogeneous phase…Here, an overview of methods of microrefractometric and microreflectometric principles is given and benefits [...]

Optical biosensors for probing at the cellular level: A review of recent progress and future prospects

Abstract New approaches are required to understand the complex processes taking place in the smallest unit of life. Recent years have seen an increasing activity in the use of optical devices and techniques for the investigation of the properties of single cells and also populations of cells including cell to cell communication. This article reviews [...]