Developmental Neurotoxicants in E-Waste: An Emerging Health Concern

Abstract Electronic waste (e-waste) has been an emerging environmental health issue in both developed and developing countries, but its current management practice may result in unintended developmental neurotoxicity in vulnerable populations. To provide updated information about the scope of the issue, presence of known and suspected neurotoxicants, toxicologic mechanisms, and current data gaps, we conducted [...]


“It’s not that I don’t have problems, I’m just not putting them on Facebook”: Challenges and Opportunities in Using Online Social Networks for Health

Abstract To understand why and how people share health information online, we interviewed fourteen people with significant health concerns who participate in both online health communities and Facebook. Qualitative analysis of these interviews highlighted the ways that people think about with whom and how to share different types of information as they pursue social goals [...]


An economic way of reducing health, environmental, and other pressures of urban traffic: a decision analysis on trip aggregation

Abstract Background: Traffic congestion is rapidly becoming the most important obstacle to urban development. In addition, traffic creates major health, environmental, and economical problems. Nonetheless, automobiles are crucial for the functions of the modern society. Most proposals for sustainable traffic solutions face major political opposition, economical consequences, or technical problems…. Results: We show here that [...]


Toward Identifying the Next Generation of Superfund and Hazardous Waste Site Contaminants

Abstract Objectives: Our aim was to initiate a dynamic, adaptable process for identifying contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that are likely to be found in future hazardous waste sites, and to identify the gaps in primary research that cause uncertainty in determining future hazardous waste site contaminants…. Discussion: Superfund-relevant CECs can be characterized by specific [...]


Particulate Matter-Induced Health Effects: Who Is Susceptible?

Abstract Background: Epidemiological, controlled human exposure, and toxicological studies have demonstrated a variety of health effects in response to particulate matter (PM) exposure with some of these studies indicating that populations with certain characteristics may be disproportionately affected…. Data synthesis: We evaluated recent epidemiological studies to identify characteristics of populations potentially susceptible to PM-related health [...]


A novel framework for validating and applying standardized small area measurement strategies

Abstract Local measurements of health behaviors, diseases, and use of health services are critical inputs into local, state, and national decision-making. Small area measurement methods can deliver more precise and accurate local-level information than direct estimates from surveys or administrative records, where sample sizes are often too small to yield acceptable standard errors. However, small [...]


Intellectual Impairment in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese from Drinking Water

Abstract Background: Manganese is an essential nutrient, but in excess it can be a potent neurotoxicant. Despite the common occurrence of manganese in groundwater, the risks associated with this source of exposure are largely unknown. Results: The median MnW in children’s home tap water was 34 µ µg/L (range, 1–2,700 µ µg/L). MnH increased with [...]


Street Science Community Knowledge and Environmental Health Justice

Abstract Street Science engages several issues that remain largely unaddressed in the environmental-policy and public-health literatures. First, increasing evidence suggests that local knowledge has contributed positively to the formulation of more sustainable resource-management practices and development decisions…Second, a growing body of literature suggests that inequalities in environmental health, morbidity, and mortality result from a combination [...]


Personal carbon monoxide exposure levels: contribution of local sources to exposures and microenvironment concentrations in Milan

Abstract In the framework of the EXPOLIS study in Milan, Italy, 48-h carbon monoxide (CO) exposures of 50 office workers were monitored over a 1-year period… The effect of gas cooking and smoking and different methods of commuting on the microenvironment and exposure levels of CO were investigated… These findings indicate that high short-term exposures [...]


Complex Causal Process Diagrams for Analyzing the Health Impacts of Policy Interventions

Abstract Causal diagrams are rigorous tools for controlling confounding. They also can be used to describe complex causal systems, which is done routinely in communicable disease epidemiology. The use of change diagrams has advantages over static diagrams, because change diagrams are more tractable, relate better to interventions, and have clearer interpretations. Causal diagrams are a [...]