A polysaccharide bioprotonic field-effect transistor

Abstract In nature, electrical signalling occurs with ions and protons, rather than electrons. Artificial devices that can control and monitor ionic and protonic currents are thus an ideal means for interfacing with biological systems. Here we report the first demonstration of a biopolymer protonic field-effect transistor with proton-transparent PdHx contacts. In maleic-chitosan nanofibres, the flow [...]


Sensing, Tracking, and Reasoning with Relations

Abstract Suppose we have a set of sensor nodes spread over a geographical area. Assume that these nodes are able to perform processing as well as sensing and are additionally capable of communicating with each other by means of a wireless network. Though each node is an independent hardware device, they need to coordinate their [...]


Pest Control Agents from Natural Products

Abstract Natural products have been used to control animal pests, plant diseases, and weeds since ancient times. Plants have been the most important sources of natural pesticides for centuries and preparations standardized for the active ingredient(s) by modern analytical methods became available in the last decades, making possible the manufacture of reliable products. More recently [...]


Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation of Water Quality of Hei River System

Abstract Identification of water quality conditions in a river system based on limited observations is an essential task for meeting the goals of environmental management. Various classification methods have been used for water quality estimation. However, a discrepancy frequently arises from the lack of a clear distinction between each water utilization mode, the uncertainty in [...]


T-Ray Sensing and Imaging

Abstract Terahertz-ray (T-ray) wavelengths are long enough to pass through dry, nonpolar objects opaque at visible wavelengths, but short enough to be manipulated by optical components to form an image. Sensing in this band potentially provides advantages in a number of areas of interest to security and defense such as screening of personnel for hidden [...]


Recent advances in polyaniline based biosensors

Abstract The present paper contains a detailed overview of recent advances relating to polyaniline (PANI) as a transducer material for biosensor applications. This conducting polymer provides enormous opportunities for binding biomolecules, tuning their bio-catalytic properties, rapid electron transfer and direct communication to produce a range of analytical signals and new analytical applications. Merging the specific [...]


Current approaches to trace analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment

Abstract A large number of xenobiotics including pharmaceuticals and personal care products are continuously released into the environment. Effluents from sewage treatment plants are well known to be the major source for introduction of pharmaceuticals and personal care products into the aquatic system. In recent years, reliable methods have been established for residue analysis of [...]


Plant biosensor systems

Abstract The invention provides a system for monitoring the bio-availability and or toxicity of contaminants in the environment. The system includes plant biosensors that indicate the presence of contaminants, such as, for example, volatile organics or heavy metals, using an in situ monitoring approach. The plant biosensors are genetically engineered to exhibit a change in [...]


Olfactory receptor-based smell nanobiosensors: An overview of theoretical and experimental results

Abstract Mammalian olfactory system is the archetype of smell sensor devices. Its complexity resides both in the odorant mechanism of capture by the single olfactory receptor (OR) and in the space organization and codification of the information. The result is a unique profile for each odorant. Our aim is to partially mimick this system, in [...]


Array-based sensing with nanoparticles: ‘Chemical noses’ for sensing biomolecules and cell surfaces

Abstract Nanoparticle-based arrays have been used to distinguish a wide range of biomolecular targets through pattern recognition. In this report, we highlight new ‘chemical nose’ methodologies that use nanoparticle systems to provide high sensitivity sensing of biomolecular targets, including fluorescent polymer/gold nanoparticle complexes that can discriminate between different bioanalytes including proteins, bacteria, and mammalian cells [...]