War Texting: Weaponizing Machine 2 Machine

Abstract Devices have been attached to the telephone network for years. Typically, we think of these devices in terms of modems, faxes, or TTY systems. Now, there is a growing shift in the nature of the devices that are accessible over the telephone network. Today, A-GPS tracking devices, 3G Security Cameras, Urban Traffic Control systems, [...]

International Research and Development in Biosensing

Abstract This report reviews international research and development activities in the field of biosensing. Biosensing includes systems that incorporate a variety of means, including electrical, electronic, and photonic devices; biological materials (e.g., tissue, enzymes, nucleic acids, etc.); and chemical analysis to produce detectable signals for the monitoring or identification of biological phenomena. This is distinct [...]

Privacy Preserving Mobility Control Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract With the development of technology, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) performing sensing and communication tasks will be widely deployed in the near future because they greatly extend our ability to monitor and control the physical environment and improve the accuracy of information gathering. Since the sensors are usually deployed in hostile environments and cannot get [...]

Developmental Neurotoxicants in E-Waste: An Emerging Health Concern

Abstract Electronic waste (e-waste) has been an emerging environmental health issue in both developed and developing countries, but its current management practice may result in unintended developmental neurotoxicity in vulnerable populations. To provide updated information about the scope of the issue, presence of known and suspected neurotoxicants, toxicologic mechanisms, and current data gaps, we conducted [...]

Toward Identifying the Next Generation of Superfund and Hazardous Waste Site Contaminants

Abstract Objectives: Our aim was to initiate a dynamic, adaptable process for identifying contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) that are likely to be found in future hazardous waste sites, and to identify the gaps in primary research that cause uncertainty in determining future hazardous waste site contaminants…. Discussion: Superfund-relevant CECs can be characterized by specific [...]

Particulate Matter-Induced Health Effects: Who Is Susceptible?

Abstract Background: Epidemiological, controlled human exposure, and toxicological studies have demonstrated a variety of health effects in response to particulate matter (PM) exposure with some of these studies indicating that populations with certain characteristics may be disproportionately affected…. Data synthesis: We evaluated recent epidemiological studies to identify characteristics of populations potentially susceptible to PM-related health [...]

A novel framework for validating and applying standardized small area measurement strategies

Abstract Local measurements of health behaviors, diseases, and use of health services are critical inputs into local, state, and national decision-making. Small area measurement methods can deliver more precise and accurate local-level information than direct estimates from surveys or administrative records, where sample sizes are often too small to yield acceptable standard errors. However, small [...]

Intellectual Impairment in School-Age Children Exposed to Manganese from Drinking Water

Abstract Background: Manganese is an essential nutrient, but in excess it can be a potent neurotoxicant. Despite the common occurrence of manganese in groundwater, the risks associated with this source of exposure are largely unknown. Results: The median MnW in children’s home tap water was 34 µ µg/L (range, 1–2,700 µ µg/L). MnH increased with [...]

Toward a Quantitative Estimate of Future Heat Wave Mortality under Global Climate Change

Abstract Climate change is anticipated to affect human health by changing the distribution of known risk factors. Heat waves have had debilitating effects on human mortality, and global climate models predict an increase in the frequency and severity of heat waves. The extent to which climate change will harm human health through changes in the [...]

Fundamentals of Energy-Constrained Sensor Network Systems

Abstract This article is an overview of energy-constrained sensor networks, focusing on energy-conserving communications and signal processing strategies. We assume battery driven nodes, employing robust communications, with little or no fixed infrastructure. Our discussion includes architectures, communications connectivity, capacity and scalability, mobility, network localization and synchronization, distributed signal processing, and cross-layer issues. Because energy is [...]