Unobtrusive physiological monitoring in an airplane seat

Abstract Air travel has become the preferred mode of long-distance transportation for most of the world’s travelers. People of every age group and health status are traveling by airplane and thus the airplane has become part of our environment, in which people with health-related limitations need assistive support. Since the main interaction point between a passenger [...]


Fundamentals of Large Sensor Networks: Connectivity, Capacity, Clocks, and Computation

Abstract Sensor networks potentially feature large numbers of nodes. The nodes can monitor and sense their environment over time, communicate with each other over a wireless network, and process information that they exchange with each other. They differ from data networks in that the network as a whole may be designed for a specific application. [...]


Recent developments in urea biosensors

Abstract This paper reviews recent developments in urea biosensors, as reported in the literature. The advantages and roles of various matrices, different strategies for biosensor construction, analytical performance and applications are discussed. The prospects of urea biosensors for medical applications are also discussed. Comments Detailed account of urea biosensors with interesting general observations on biosensor [...]


Synthetic biosensing systems

Abstract An essential feature of synthetic biology devices is the conversion of signals from the exterior of the cell into specific cellular events such as the synthesis of a fluorescent protein…In the future, completely artificial signaling pathways will give us the possibility to control cellular processes in a direct, precise and reliable way. At present, [...]


Novel semiconductor materials for the development of chemical sensors and biosensors: A review

Abstract The aim of this manuscript is to provide a condensed overview of the contribution of certain relatively new semiconductor substrates…The silicon era is initially reviewed providing the background onto which the deployment of the new semiconductor materials for the development of bio-chem-FETs is based on. Subsequently emphasis is given to the selective interaction of [...]


Biosensors for pharmaceuticals based on novel technology

Abstract The availability of pharmaceuticals to treat and to prevent disease has brought great benefit. Nevertheless, attention is being drawn to the uncontrolled use and careless disposal of medications for humans and animals. These compounds and their metabolites are found in the environment and foodstuffs, with possible adverse risks to human health. Detection of pharmaceuticals [...]


Immunoanalytical techniques for analyzing pesticides in the environment

Abstract Affinity-based immunosensing techniques for pesticide analysis have attracted intense interest and have found many applications in environmental monitoring. This article reflects recent advances in immunochemical techniques for environmental analysis and monitoring of pesticides. We highlight development of bioreceptors (e.g., antibodies) against low-molecular-weight organic pollutants, and the use of different transduction elements for detecting physico-chemical, [...]


Direct optical sensors: principles and selected applications

Abstract In the field of bio and chemosensors a large number of detection principles has been published within the last decade. These detection principles are based either on the observation of fluorescence-labelled systems or on direct optical detection in the heterogeneous phase…Here, an overview of methods of microrefractometric and microreflectometric principles is given and benefits [...]


Toxicity issues in the application of carbon nanotubes to biological systems

Abstract Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently emerged as a new option for possible use in methodologies of cancer treatment, bioengineering, and gene therapy. This review analyzes the potential, through possible toxicologic implications, of CNTs in nanomedicine. Generally, proven success in other fields may not translate to the use of CNTs in medicine for reasons including [...]


Recent Development of Micromachined Biosensors

Abstract The aim of this paper is to provide a panoramic view of recent advancements for the micromachined biosensors. In terms of different sensing principles, three categories of biosensors that have attracted much attention in recent decade are reviewed, which are electrochemical biosensors, microcantilever biosensors, and dielectric spectroscopic biosensors. Each type of biosensors has certain [...]