An economic way of reducing health, environmental, and other pressures of urban traffic: a decision analysis on trip aggregation

Abstract Background: Traffic congestion is rapidly becoming the most important obstacle to urban development. In addition, traffic creates major health, environmental, and economical problems. Nonetheless, automobiles are crucial for the functions of the modern society. Most proposals for sustainable traffic solutions face major political opposition, economical consequences, or technical problems…. Results: We show here that [...]


Street Science Community Knowledge and Environmental Health Justice

Abstract Street Science engages several issues that remain largely unaddressed in the environmental-policy and public-health literatures. First, increasing evidence suggests that local knowledge has contributed positively to the formulation of more sustainable resource-management practices and development decisions…Second, a growing body of literature suggests that inequalities in environmental health, morbidity, and mortality result from a combination [...]


Fundamentals of Energy-Constrained Sensor Network Systems

Abstract This article is an overview of energy-constrained sensor networks, focusing on energy-conserving communications and signal processing strategies. We assume battery driven nodes, employing robust communications, with little or no fixed infrastructure. Our discussion includes architectures, communications connectivity, capacity and scalability, mobility, network localization and synchronization, distributed signal processing, and cross-layer issues. Because energy is [...]


A Design Process for the Development of Innovative Smart Clothing that Addresses End-User Needs from Technical, Functional, Aesthetic and Cultural View Points

Abstract The research and development of attractive smart clothing, with truly embedded technologies, demands the merging of science and technology with art and design. This paper looks at a comparatively new and unique design discipline that has been given little prior consideration. The concept of ‘wearables’ crosses the boundaries between many disciplines. A gap exists [...]


Street Science: Community Knowledge and Environmental Health Justice

Abstract When environmental health problems arise in a community, policymakers must be able to reconcile the first-hand experience of local residents with recommendations by scientists. In this highly original look at environmental health policymaking, Jason Corburn shows the ways that local knowledge can be combined with professional techniques to achieve better solutions for environmental health [...]


Plant biosensor systems

Abstract The invention provides a system for monitoring the bio-availability and or toxicity of contaminants in the environment. The system includes plant biosensors that indicate the presence of contaminants, such as, for example, volatile organics or heavy metals, using an in situ monitoring approach. The plant biosensors are genetically engineered to exhibit a change in [...]


Direct optical sensors: principles and selected applications

Abstract In the field of bio and chemosensors a large number of detection principles has been published within the last decade. These detection principles are based either on the observation of fluorescence-labelled systems or on direct optical detection in the heterogeneous phase…Here, an overview of methods of microrefractometric and microreflectometric principles is given and benefits [...]


Biosensors for marine applications: We all need the sea, but does the sea need biosensors?

Abstract The aim of the paper is to explain the rationale behind marine biosensor applications, give an overview of measurement strategies currently employed, summarise some of the relevant available biosensor technology as well as instrumentation requirements for marine sensors and attempt a forward look at what the future might hold in terms of needs and [...]


Grid-Enabled Biosensor Networks for Pervasive Healthcare

Abstract Current advances in biosensor technology allow multiple miniaturized or textile sensors to record continuously biosignals, such as blood pressure or heart rate, and transmit the information of interest to clinical sites. New applications are emerging, based on such systems, towards pervasive healthcare. This paper describes an architecture enabling biosensors, forming a Body Area Network [...]


Critical Elements of Biological Sensor Technology for Deployment in an Environmental Network System

Abstract A key factor affected for the ability to protect against biological and chemical threats is the deployment of an automated sensor monitoring system for use in government and commercial applications. Currently available biosensors have several shortcomings that must be overcome: 1) they are slow to recognize the presence of a pathogen; 2) they are [...]