Complex Causal Process Diagrams for Analyzing the Health Impacts of Policy Interventions

Abstract Causal diagrams are rigorous tools for controlling confounding. They also can be used to describe complex causal systems, which is done routinely in communicable disease epidemiology. The use of change diagrams has advantages over static diagrams, because change diagrams are more tractable, relate better to interventions, and have clearer interpretations. Causal diagrams are a [...]


Combining wireless with wearable technology for the development of on-body networks

Abstract In the area of wearable devices, the issue of comfortable body monitoring is of up most importance. However conventional sensors are generally unsuitable for wearable body monitoring devices either due to their physical structure or their functional requirements. This paper presents a prototype wearable device whereby the breathing rate of a number of subjects [...]


Questions to Improve Quality of Life with Wearables: Humans, Technology, and the World

Abstract Existing wearables mainly benefit to specialists and patients however they could also benefit to the general public, improving quality of life. To reach this goal, strategies for the development and implementation of wearables must be chosen based on careful consideration of interaction between humans and computing technologies, from multiple perspectives including cultural, economic, political, and [...]


Human Computing and Machine Understanding of Human Behavior: A Survey

Abstract A widely accepted prediction is that computing will move to the background, weaving itself into the fabric of our everyday living spaces and projecting the human user into the foreground. If this prediction is to come true, then next generation computing, which we will call human computing, should be about anticipatory user interfaces that [...]


Plants as Environmental Biosensors

Abstract Plants are continuously exposed to a wide variety of perturbations including variation of temperature and/or light, mechanical forces, gravity, air and soil pollution, drought, deficiency or surplus of nutrients, attacks by insects and pathogens, etc., and hence, it is essential for all plants to have survival sensory mechanisms against such perturbations. Consequently, plants generate [...]


Recent advances in biosensor techniques for environmental monitoring

Abstract Biosensors for environmental applications continue to show advances and improvements in areas such as sensitivity, selectivity and simplicity. In addition to detecting and measuring specific compounds or compound classes such as pesticides, hazardous industrial chemicals, toxic metals, and pathogenic bacteria, biosensors and bioanalytical assays have been designed to measure biological effects such as cytotoxicity, [...]


Applications of whole-cell bacterial sensors in biotechnology and environmental science

Abstract Biosensors have major advantages over chemical or physical analyses with regard to specificity, sensitivity, and portability. Recently, many types of whole-cell bacterial biosensors have been developed using recombinant DNA technology. The bacteria are genetically engineered to respond to the presence of chemicals or physiological stresses by synthesizing a reporter protein, such as luciferase, β-galactosidase, [...]


A Framework Ensuring Privacy in a Distributed Environment

Abstract In the age of Internet and loosely coupled applications, privacy has become a matter of concern. Individuals lose track of their personal data and have no control over databases and information systems containing their personal data. In the field of distributed systems, resarchers focus mainly on how to integrate a variety of systems in [...]


The Human Infrastructure of Cyberinfrastructure

Abstract Despite their rapid proliferation, there has been little examination of the coordination and social practices of cyberinfrastructure projects. We use the notion of “human infrastructure” to explore how human and organizational arrangements share properties with technological infrastructures. We conducted an 18-month ethnographic study of a large-scale distributed biomedical cyberinfrastructure project and discovered that human [...]