Tag Archives: biosensors

International Research and Development in Biosensing

Abstract This report reviews international research and development activities in the field of biosensing. Biosensing includes systems that incorporate a variety of means, including electrical, electronic, and photonic devices; biological materials (e.g., tissue, enzymes, nucleic acids, etc.); and chemical analysis to produce detectable signals for the monitoring or identification of biological phenomena. This is distinct [...]

A polysaccharide bioprotonic field-effect transistor

Abstract In nature, electrical signalling occurs with ions and protons, rather than electrons. Artificial devices that can control and monitor ionic and protonic currents are thus an ideal means for interfacing with biological systems. Here we report the first demonstration of a biopolymer protonic field-effect transistor with proton-transparent PdHx contacts. In maleic-chitosan nanofibres, the flow [...]

A Survey on Wearable Sensor-Based Systems for Health Monitoring and Prognosis

Abstract The design and development of wearable biosensor systems for health monitoring has garnered lots of attention in the scientific community and the industry during the last years. Mainly motivated by increasing healthcare costs and propelled by recent technological advances in miniature biosensing devices, smart textiles, microelectronics, and wireless communications, the continuous advance of wearable [...]

Wearable Sensors and Systems

Abstract …over the past decade, wearable technology has gained the interest of researchers and clinicians. The motivation for the development of wearable sensors and systems is due to the tremendous benefits that could be associated with long-term monitoring of individuals in the home and community settings…. Comments This introductory journal entry gives an overview of [...]

Recent developments in urea biosensors

Abstract This paper reviews recent developments in urea biosensors, as reported in the literature. The advantages and roles of various matrices, different strategies for biosensor construction, analytical performance and applications are discussed. The prospects of urea biosensors for medical applications are also discussed. Comments Detailed account of urea biosensors with interesting general observations on biosensor [...]

T-Ray Sensing and Imaging

Abstract Terahertz-ray (T-ray) wavelengths are long enough to pass through dry, nonpolar objects opaque at visible wavelengths, but short enough to be manipulated by optical components to form an image. Sensing in this band potentially provides advantages in a number of areas of interest to security and defense such as screening of personnel for hidden [...]

Synthetic biosensing systems

Abstract An essential feature of synthetic biology devices is the conversion of signals from the exterior of the cell into specific cellular events such as the synthesis of a fluorescent protein…In the future, completely artificial signaling pathways will give us the possibility to control cellular processes in a direct, precise and reliable way. At present, [...]

Towards Biosensing Strategies Based on Biochemical Logic Systems

Abstract Recent advances in biochemical computing, i.e., information processing with cascades of primarily enzymatic reactions realizing computing gates, such as AND, OR, etc., as well as progress in networking these gates and coupling of the resulting systems to smart/responsive electrodes for output readout, have opened new biosensing opportunities. Here we survey existing enabling research results, [...]

Assessment of social implications of nanotechnologies in Japan: Application of problem structuring method based on interview surveys and cognitive maps

Abstract This paper aims at developing a problem structuring method based on interview surveys of key stakeholders and a well-known visualizing technique, called a “cognitive map.” We found that this new method, based on an interactive process with key stakeholders, was able to draw broader and more detailed issues than was previously anticipated. We also [...]

Novel semiconductor materials for the development of chemical sensors and biosensors: A review

Abstract The aim of this manuscript is to provide a condensed overview of the contribution of certain relatively new semiconductor substrates…The silicon era is initially reviewed providing the background onto which the deployment of the new semiconductor materials for the development of bio-chem-FETs is based on. Subsequently emphasis is given to the selective interaction of [...]

Surface acoustic wave biosensors: a review

Abstract This review presents an overview of 20 years of worldwide development in the field of biosensors based on special types of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices that permit the highly sensitive detection of biorelevant molecules in liquid media…1987 saw the first approaches, which used either horizontally polarized shear waves (HPSW) in a delay line [...]

Lend me your arms: The use and implications of humancentric RFID

Abstract Recent developments in the area of RFID have seen the technology expand from its role in industrial and animal tagging applications, to being implantable in humans. With a gap in literature identified between current technological development and future humancentric possibility, little has been previously known about the nature of contemporary humancentric applications. By employing [...]

Recent advances in polyaniline based biosensors

Abstract The present paper contains a detailed overview of recent advances relating to polyaniline (PANI) as a transducer material for biosensor applications. This conducting polymer provides enormous opportunities for binding biomolecules, tuning their bio-catalytic properties, rapid electron transfer and direct communication to produce a range of analytical signals and new analytical applications. Merging the specific [...]

Plants as Environmental Biosensors

Abstract Plants are continuously exposed to a wide variety of perturbations including variation of temperature and/or light, mechanical forces, gravity, air and soil pollution, drought, deficiency or surplus of nutrients, attacks by insects and pathogens, etc., and hence, it is essential for all plants to have survival sensory mechanisms against such perturbations. Consequently, plants generate [...]

Biosensors for pharmaceuticals based on novel technology

Abstract The availability of pharmaceuticals to treat and to prevent disease has brought great benefit. Nevertheless, attention is being drawn to the uncontrolled use and careless disposal of medications for humans and animals. These compounds and their metabolites are found in the environment and foodstuffs, with possible adverse risks to human health. Detection of pharmaceuticals [...]

Immunoanalytical techniques for analyzing pesticides in the environment

Abstract Affinity-based immunosensing techniques for pesticide analysis have attracted intense interest and have found many applications in environmental monitoring. This article reflects recent advances in immunochemical techniques for environmental analysis and monitoring of pesticides. We highlight development of bioreceptors (e.g., antibodies) against low-molecular-weight organic pollutants, and the use of different transduction elements for detecting physico-chemical, [...]

Current approaches to trace analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the environment

Abstract A large number of xenobiotics including pharmaceuticals and personal care products are continuously released into the environment. Effluents from sewage treatment plants are well known to be the major source for introduction of pharmaceuticals and personal care products into the aquatic system. In recent years, reliable methods have been established for residue analysis of [...]

Plant biosensor systems

Abstract The invention provides a system for monitoring the bio-availability and or toxicity of contaminants in the environment. The system includes plant biosensors that indicate the presence of contaminants, such as, for example, volatile organics or heavy metals, using an in situ monitoring approach. The plant biosensors are genetically engineered to exhibit a change in [...]

Direct optical sensors: principles and selected applications

Abstract In the field of bio and chemosensors a large number of detection principles has been published within the last decade. These detection principles are based either on the observation of fluorescence-labelled systems or on direct optical detection in the heterogeneous phase…Here, an overview of methods of microrefractometric and microreflectometric principles is given and benefits [...]

On-Body Sensing: From Gesture-Based Input to Activity-Driven Interaction

Abstract Recently, systems have emerged that utilize a broad range of sensors to facilitate gesture and motion-based interaction. Examples range from multitouch surfaces to tilt control to complex, motion-based game controllers. As these technologies become mainstream, research is already focusing on the next step: activity-driven, implicit interaction. Comments General discussion of future wearable biosensors: next-generation [...]

Characteristics of a multisensor system for non invasive glucose monitoring with external validation and prospective evaluation

Abstract The Multisensor Glucose Monitoring System (MGMS) features non invasive sensors for dielectric characterisation of the skin and underlying tissue in a wide frequency range…as well as optical characterisation. In this paper we describe the results of using an MGMS in a miniaturised housing with fully integrated sensors and battery. Six patients with Type I [...]

Olfactory receptor-based smell nanobiosensors: An overview of theoretical and experimental results

Abstract Mammalian olfactory system is the archetype of smell sensor devices. Its complexity resides both in the odorant mechanism of capture by the single olfactory receptor (OR) and in the space organization and codification of the information. The result is a unique profile for each odorant. Our aim is to partially mimick this system, in [...]

Mimicking nature’s noses: From receptor deorphaning to olfactory biosensing

Abstract The way in which organisms detect specific volatile compounds within their environment, and the associated neural processing which produces perception and subsequent behavioural responses, have been of interest to scientists for decades. Initially, most olfaction research was conducted using electrophysiological techniques on whole animals. However, the discovery of genes encoding the family of human [...]

Toxicity issues in the application of carbon nanotubes to biological systems

Abstract Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have recently emerged as a new option for possible use in methodologies of cancer treatment, bioengineering, and gene therapy. This review analyzes the potential, through possible toxicologic implications, of CNTs in nanomedicine. Generally, proven success in other fields may not translate to the use of CNTs in medicine for reasons including [...]

Electrochemical sensing based on carbon nanotubes

Abstract The singular chemical structure and the size of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) provide their extraordinary properties. Many researchers have used the electronic characteristics of CNTs to develop electrochemical analytical methods and sensing devices with improved characteristics. In this overview, we discuss the most significant innovations in electrochemical sensing based on CNTs, as reported in the [...]

Array-based sensing with nanoparticles: ‘Chemical noses’ for sensing biomolecules and cell surfaces

Abstract Nanoparticle-based arrays have been used to distinguish a wide range of biomolecular targets through pattern recognition. In this report, we highlight new ‘chemical nose’ methodologies that use nanoparticle systems to provide high sensitivity sensing of biomolecular targets, including fluorescent polymer/gold nanoparticle complexes that can discriminate between different bioanalytes including proteins, bacteria, and mammalian cells [...]

A multicomponent recognition and separation system established via fluorescent, magnetic, dualencoded multifunctional bioprobes

Abstract Accurate and rapid recognition and separation of multiple types of biological targets such as molecules, cells, bacteria or viruses from complex sample mixtures is of great importance for a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. To achieve this goal, a set of fluorescent, magnetic, dual-encoded multifunctional bioprobes has been constructed by co-embedding different-sized [...]

Biomolecule imprinting: Developments in mimicking dynamic natural recognition systems

Abstract The principle of molecular imprinting has repeatedly been proven a successful and effective means of creating sites of specific recognition within polymers. After almost three decades of development, we finally have some evidence of large molecule imprinting…We describe here some of the new and innovative work that endeavours to take molecular imprinting away from [...]

Mobile Heart Health: Project Highlight

Abstract To address psychosocial risks of cardiovascular disease, we integrated on-the-body sensors with mobile therapies for “just-in-time” stress management. Breathing visualizations and cognitive reappraisal cues appeared on the cell phone when a wireless ECG detected deviations from an individual’s baseline heart rate variability. Reactions from participants validated this concept and highlighted the need for a [...]

Detection of microorganisms using biosensors–A smarter way towards detection techniques

Abstract Along with useful microorganisms, there are some that cause potential damage to the animals and plants. Detection and identification of these harmful organisms in a cost and time effective way is a challenge for the researchers. The future of detection methods for microorganisms shall be guided by biosensor, which has already contributed enormously in [...]

Recent Development of Micromachined Biosensors

Abstract The aim of this paper is to provide a panoramic view of recent advancements for the micromachined biosensors. In terms of different sensing principles, three categories of biosensors that have attracted much attention in recent decade are reviewed, which are electrochemical biosensors, microcantilever biosensors, and dielectric spectroscopic biosensors. Each type of biosensors has certain [...]

Microbial biosensors: A review

Abstract A microbial biosensor is an analytical device which integrates microorganism(s) with a physical transducer to generate a measurable signal proportional to the concentration of analytes. In recent years, a large number of microbial biosensors have been developed for environmental, food, and biomedical applications. Starting with the discussion of various sensing techniques commonly used in [...]

Large scale biomimetic membrane arrays

Abstract To establish planar biomimetic membranes across large scale partition aperture arrays, we created a disposable single-use horizontal chamber design that supports combined optical–electrical measurements. Functional lipid bilayers could easily and efficiently be established across CO2 laser micro-structured 8×8 aperture partition arrays with average aperture diameters of 301±5 μm. We addressed the electro-physical properties of [...]

Biosensors for marine applications: We all need the sea, but does the sea need biosensors?

Abstract The aim of the paper is to explain the rationale behind marine biosensor applications, give an overview of measurement strategies currently employed, summarise some of the relevant available biosensor technology as well as instrumentation requirements for marine sensors and attempt a forward look at what the future might hold in terms of needs and [...]

A living cell-based biosensor utilizing G-protein coupled receptors: Principles and detection methods

Abstract This study explores the feasibility of using a bullfrog fibroblast cell line (FT cells) expressing protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) as the basis for a living cell-based biosensor. We have fabricated gold microelectrode arrays on a silicon dioxide substrate that supports long term, robust growth of the cells at room temperature and under ambient atmospheric [...]

Biosensors for life quality: Design, development and applications

Abstract Biosensors, combining a selective biological recognition element and a sensitive transducer, are versatile analytical tools applied more and more in different fields, such as medicine, food quality and safety control, and environment pollution monitoring. They are expected to play an increasingly important role in the improvement of life quality. In this context, the present [...]

Can we grow buildings? Concepts and requirements for automated nano- to meter-scale building

Abstract The construction industry will have to find new ways of building to accomplish radical reductions of pollution and waste. Nano and biotechnology along with information technology have the potential to constitute a new building paradigm. The paper describes the concept of nano- to meter-scale building, which is based on this potential. The concept is [...]

Biological monitoring: lichens as bioindicators of air pollution assessment — a review

Abstract Often as part of environmental impact studies…biological indicators are required. This is because such indicators are valid instruments for evaluating the quality of the air ensuing from the subject (often an industrial plant)…In this context, this paper aims to analyse some of the theoretical aspects of biological monitoring and to provide a progress report [...]

Emerging synergy between nanotechnology and implantable biosensors: A review

Abstract The development of implantable biosensors for continuous monitoring of metabolites is an area of sustained scientific and technological interests. On the other hand, nanotechnology, a discipline which deals with the properties of materials at the nanoscale, is developing as a potent tool to enhance the performance of these biosensors. This article reviews the current [...]

Biomimetic strategies based on viruses and bacteria for the development of immune evasive biomaterials

Abstract The field of biomaterials has begun to focus upon materials strategies for modulating the immune response. While certain approaches appear promising, they are currently limited to isolated facets of inflammation process. It is well documented that both bacteria and viruses have highly developed methods for evading the immune system, providing inspiration for a more [...]

Noninvasive Bed Sensing of Human Biosignals via Piezoceramic Devices Sandwiched Between the Floor and Bed

Abstract This paper describes a novel bed sensing method for noninvasive, constraint-free, subliminal detection of biosignals. The sensor system detects the heartbeat, respiration, body movement, position change and scratching motion of a person lying or sleeping on the bed. These biosignals provide not only basic medical information but also sophisticated details about sleep conditions. Thus, [...]

Humidity Sensors Mimicking Cuticle of Hercules Beetles

Abstract This paper reports a biomimetic humidity sensor inspired by the humidity-dependent color change observed in the cuticle of the Hercules beetle. A film-type humidity sensor with nanoporous structures based on 3D photonic crystals was designed and fabricated using the colloidal templating method and a surface treatment. The visible color of the fabricated humidity sensor [...]

Ubiquitous Health Monitoring at Home – Sensing of Human Biosignals on Flooring, on Tatami Mat, in the Bathtub, and in the Lavatory

Abstract In the graying society, it is important to monitor health-related biosignal with sensors in the living environment..In order to use biosignal data monitoring systems daily at home, noninvasive monitoring and system maintenance are crucial. We propose a method of estimating the sleep stages of sleeping subjects through noninvasive measurement of heartbeat and respiration using [...]

BEAT: Bio-Environmental Android Tracking

Abstract We introduce BEAT (Bio-Environmental Android Tracking), which provides methods for collecting, processing, and archiving one’s daily vital and spatiotemporal statistics using off-the-shelf wireless devices and biologic and environmental sensors. BEAT can operate in a self-contained manner on a mobile device and analyze vital information in real time. It uses statistics such as heartbeat variance [...]

Grid-Enabled Biosensor Networks for Pervasive Healthcare

Abstract Current advances in biosensor technology allow multiple miniaturized or textile sensors to record continuously biosignals, such as blood pressure or heart rate, and transmit the information of interest to clinical sites. New applications are emerging, based on such systems, towards pervasive healthcare. This paper describes an architecture enabling biosensors, forming a Body Area Network [...]

Testing for genetically modified organisms (GMOs): Past, present and future perspectives

Abstract This paper presents an overview of GMO (Genetically Modified Organisms) testing methodologies and how these have evolved and may evolve in the next decade. Challenges and limitations for the application of the test methods as well as to the interpretation of results produced with the methods are highlighted and discussed, under consideration of various [...]

Review of analytical figures of merit of sensors and biosensors in clinical applications

Abstract …Health care appears to provide the best opportunity for sensor development. Among the wide range of different sensors and biosensors, electrochemical biosensors are the most common in the clinical field, due to their high sensitivity and selectivity, portability, rapid response time and low cost. This article provides an up-to-date overview of the analytical performance [...]

Recent advances in biosensor techniques for environmental monitoring

Abstract Biosensors for environmental applications continue to show advances and improvements in areas such as sensitivity, selectivity and simplicity. In addition to detecting and measuring specific compounds or compound classes such as pesticides, hazardous industrial chemicals, toxic metals, and pathogenic bacteria, biosensors and bioanalytical assays have been designed to measure biological effects such as cytotoxicity, [...]

Smart electrochemical biosensors: From advanced materials to ultrasensitive devices

Abstract Recent reports…showed unprecedented sensitivities for biomolecular recognition using enhanced electronic amplification provided by new classes of electrode materials (e.g. carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles, and quantum dots). Biosensor technology is one area where recent advances in nanomaterials are pushing the technological limits of electrochemical sensitivities, thus allowing for the development of new sensor chemistries and [...]

Unearthing human pathogens at the agricultural–environment interface: A review of current methods for the detection of Escherichia coli O157 in freshwater ecosystems

Abstract Contamination of water with the zoonotic pathogen Escherichia coli O157 can have severe public health implications and has led to many large disease outbreaks. Although the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants is the recognised reservoir of this organism, E. coli O157 can persist for significant periods of time in animal manure and contaminated soil, from [...]

Trends in DNA biosensors

Abstract …Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biosensors (genosensors) have been exploited for their inherent physicochemical stability and suitability to discriminate different organism strains. The main principle of detection among genosensors relies on specific DNA hybridization, directly on the surface of a physical transducer. This review covers the main DNA immobilization techniques reported so far, new micro- and [...]

A novel system for environmental monitoring through a cooperative/synergistic scheme between bioindicators and biosensors

Abstract This paper addresses environmental monitoring through a robust dynamic integration between biomonitor and biosensor systems…The two systems are conceptually interrelated and methodologically correlated to a cooperative/synergistic scheme (CSS) with a view to minimise uncertainty and monitoring costs and increase reliability of pollution control and abatement… The bioindicator ontology presented herein, including concepts, relations and [...]

Optical biosensors for probing at the cellular level: A review of recent progress and future prospects

Abstract New approaches are required to understand the complex processes taking place in the smallest unit of life. Recent years have seen an increasing activity in the use of optical devices and techniques for the investigation of the properties of single cells and also populations of cells including cell to cell communication. This article reviews [...]

Prospects for combining chemical and biological methods for integrated environmental assessment

Abstract …Besides deploying a chemicals-driven strategy for the ecological risk assessment of the pollutants, it is necessary to apply and to explore biological strategies. Consequently, bioassays, biosensors and effect-directed analysis (EDA) to identify pollutants responsible of particular effects have become increasingly important. We give a broad overview of how to assess biological monitoring of ecosystems [...]

Electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of caffeine and aspirin in human urine samples

Abstract A simple and sensitive electrochemical method has been developed for the determination of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) and caffeine (CAF) using edge plane pyrolytic graphite electrode (EPPGE). At pH 7.2, two well defined peaks with peak potential (Ep) of _1225 mV and _1335 mV were appeared for the oxidation of ASA and CAF, respectively. [...]

Recent advances in recognition elements of food and environmental biosensors: A review

Abstract A sensitive monitoring of contaminants in food and environment, such as chemical compounds, toxins and pathogens, is essential to assess and avoid risks for both, human and environmental health. To accomplish this, there is a high need for sensitive, robust and cost-effective biosensors that make real time and in situ monitoring possible. Due to [...]

Biosensors in plants

Abstract …Developmental biology is increasingly using mathematical models and yet few of these models are based on quantitative recordings. In particular, we know comparatively little about the endogenous concentrations or fluxes of signaling molecules such as the phytohormones, an area of great potential for new biosensors. There are extremely useful biosensors for some signals, but [...]

BIOTEX—Biosensing Textiles for Personalised Healthcare Management

Abstract …BIOTEX was an EU-funded project that aimed to develop textile sensors to measure physiological parameters and the chemical composition of body fluids, with a particular interest in sweat. A wearable sensing system has been developed that integrates a textile-based fluid handling system for sample collection and transport with a number of sensors including sodium, [...]

A Survey on Wearable Sensor-Based Systems for Health Monitoring and Prognosis

Abstract …This paper attempts to comprehensively review the current research and development on wearable biosensor systems for health monitoring. A variety of system implementations are compared in an approach to identify the technological shortcomings of the current state-of-the-art in wearable biosensor solutions. An emphasis is given to multiparameter physiological sensing system designs, providing reliable vital [...]

Biomonitoring of Industrial Pollutants: Health and Policy Implications of the Chemical Body Burden

Abstract General discussion of the consequences of industrial production of synthetic chemicals on the human body. Coinage of the term “body burden” on the individual and collective levels. Implications for health policy and education for citizens. Comments General discussion of the consequences of industrial use of chemicals on the human body. Historical data discussed and [...]

Immobilization of biomolecules on nanostructured films for biosensing

Abstract This paper brings an overview of the use of nanostructured films in several types of biosensors, with emphasis on the advantageous control of molecular architecture…Important contributions in the literature in biosensors based on electrochemical and optical measurements are highlighted. Furthermore, a discussion is presented on how the concept of electronic tongues has been extended [...]

Micro- and nanotechnologies for intelligent and responsive biomaterial-based medical systems

Abstract …Combination of micro- and nano-fabricated systems with intelligent biomaterials that have the ability to sense and respond is a promising avenue for the development of better diagnostic and therapeutic medical systems. Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMs and NEMs) are now becoming a family of potentially powerful new technologies for drug delivery, diagnostic tools, and [...]

Bioluminescent Escherichia coli Strains for the Quantitative Detection of Phosphate and Ammonia in Coastal and Suburban Watersheds

Abstract …Analytic chemistry kits are used to measure phosphate and ammonia levels in water samples with algal blooms, but their sensitivity is limited due to specificity for inorganic forms of these moieties. An Escherichia coli bioluminescent reporter system measured the bioavailability of inorganic nutrients through fusion of E. coli promoters ( phoA or glnAp2) to [...]

Applications of whole-cell bacterial sensors in biotechnology and environmental science

Abstract Biosensors have major advantages over chemical or physical analyses with regard to specificity, sensitivity, and portability. Recently, many types of whole-cell bacterial biosensors have been developed using recombinant DNA technology. The bacteria are genetically engineered to respond to the presence of chemicals or physiological stresses by synthesizing a reporter protein, such as luciferase, β-galactosidase, [...]

Anti-fouling bioactive surfaces

Abstract Bioactive surfaces refer to surfaces with immobilized bioactive molecules aimed specifically at promoting or supporting particular interactions. Such surfaces are of great importance for various biomedical and biomaterials applications. In the past, considerable effort has been made to create bioactive surfaces by forming specific biomolecule-modified surfaces on a non-biofouling “base” or “background”. Hydrophilic and [...]

Animals as Mobile Biological Sensors for Forest Fire Detection

Abstract This paper proposes a mobile biological sensor system that can assist in early detection of forest fires. The main idea presented in this paper is to utilize animals with sensors as Mobile Biological Sensors (MBS). The devices used in this system are animals which are native animals living in forests, sensors (thermo and radiation [...]

Fast and accurate peanut allergen detection with nanobead enhanced optical fiber SPR biosensor

Abstract This paper is the first report of a fiber optic SPR biosensor with nanobead signal enhancement. We evaluated the system with a bioassay for the fast and accurate detection of peanut allergens in complex food matrices. Three approaches of an immunoassay to detect Ara h1 peanut allergens in chocolate candy bars were compared; a [...]

Recent advances in wide bandgap semiconductor biological and gas sensors

Abstract There has been significant recent interest in the use of surface-functionalized thin film and nanowire wide bandgap semiconductors, principally GaN, InN, ZnO and SiC, for sensing of gases, heavy metals, UV photons and biological molecules. For the detection of gases such as hydrogen, the semiconductors are typically coated with a catalyst metal such as [...]

Nano-Biosensor Development for Biomedical and Environmental Measurements

Abstract Nano biosensor development for biomedical and environmental measurements has been tried by research groups all over the world. Identifying and fabricating suitable nano-materials as enzyme immobilizing matrices to enhance characteristics of the sensor is the most important and difficult task of it. In this chapter we discuss about polypyrrole(PPy) nano-tube array grown on Alumina [...]

Critical Elements of Biological Sensor Technology for Deployment in an Environmental Network System

Abstract A key factor affected for the ability to protect against biological and chemical threats is the deployment of an automated sensor monitoring system for use in government and commercial applications. Currently available biosensors have several shortcomings that must be overcome: 1) they are slow to recognize the presence of a pathogen; 2) they are [...]

Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring at Global Scale and the EU Level

Abstract Biosensor technology is based on a specific biological recognition element in combination with a transducer for signal processing. Since their inception, biosensors have been expected to play a significant analytical role in environmental monitoring…biomonitoring is an essential tool for rapid and cost-effective environmental monitoring. For this reason, biosensor technology has been considered as a [...]

Sensor technology and its application in environmental analysis

Abstract Environmental analysis is one of the fundamental applications of chemical sensors. In this review we describe different sensor systems for the gas and liquid phases that have been tested either with real-life samples or in the field during the last five years. Most field sensors rely either on electrochemical or optical transducers. In the [...]

Electrochemical biosensors: recommended definitions and classification

Abstract …An electrochemical biosensor is a self-contained integrated device, which is capable of providing specific quantitative or semi-quantitative analytical information using a biological recognition element (biochemical receptor) which is retained in direct spatial contact with an electrochemical transduction element. Because of their ability to be repeatedly calibrated, we recommend that a biosensor should be clearly [...]

Development of Smart Functional Surfaces for Biosensor Applications

Abstract Biosensing platforms and antimicrobial coatings were developed to combat problems associated with infectious diseases. Particularly, a lytic bacteriophage based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor was developed to detect food borne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) in real-time with high specificity. Lytic bacteriophages are naturally developed molecular probes that infect bacteria. They are environmentally stable and [...]